The Cultural and Methodological Factors Challenging the Success of the Community-Based Participatory Research Approach When Designing a Study on Adolescents Sexuality in Traditional Society

Raaifa Jabareen


Youth growing up in traditional cultures are split between the messages that they receive on sexuality from their families and those they receive via the internet depicting values of Western culture‭. ‬The Palestinian-Israeli community‭, ‬a national‭, ‬ethnic‭, ‬and linguistic minority‭, ‬is an example of this situation‭. ‬The purpose of this community-based participatory research study is to‭ ‬describe the challenges and lessons learned about launching a community advisory board‭ (‬CAB‭) ‬in studies on the taboo topic of adolescent sexuality‭. ‬Using content analysis‭, ‬we identified two necessary conditions to convene a CAB on adolescent sexuality in a‭ ‬traditional community‭: (‬a‭) ‬an insider academic researcher‭, ‬fluent in the native language‭, ‬able to discuss the linguistic difficulties of sexual terminology and‭ (‬c‭) ‬the recruitment of motivated‭, ‬community activists who were knowledgeable on the topic‭. ‬The‭ ‬mostly traditional society of Palestinian-Israelis shuns discussions on sexuality‭; ‬but with these two conditions‭, ‬the study was‭ ‬a success‭.‬

Self-Efficacy and Collective Efficacy as Moderators of the Psychological Consequences of Exposure of Palestinian Parents in Israel to Community Violence

Neveen Ali-Saleh Darawshy1


Muhammad M. Haj-Yahia1


This study examined the rates of exposure to community violence (ECV; that is, witnessing and directly experiencing violence) as well as the detrimental consequences of such exposure as reflected in posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and a decline in psychological well-being (PWB) among parents. In addition, the study examined whether self-efficacy and collective efficacy moderate these consequences. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by a systematic random sample of 760 Palestinian parents in Israel. The findings indicate that most of them had witnessed such violence, and almost half of them had directly experienced such violence in their lifetime. The rates of ECV were higher for the fathers than the mothers. ECV was found to predict high levels of PTSS and low levels of PWB among parents. In addition, collective efficacy was found only to moderate the relationship between witnessing community violence and PTSS. There is a need to identify adults who are exposed to community violence, as well as to develop culturally adapted and sociopolitically sensitive therapeutic and preventive interventions and projects for the provision of assistance following exposure to such violence.